Table Of Contents
Graduation Project
References




SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Semih OTLES  MSc ,PhD - Professor of Food Chemistry

PART A

  • SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHNOLOGY

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1. What is a Supercritical Fluid ?

1.1.1. Definition

1.1.2. Carbon dioxide and other fluids

1.2. Historical Background of Supercritical Fluids

1.3. Scope of Supercritical Fluids

2. PROPERTIES OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS

2.1. Density Considerations

2.2. Thermodynamic Properties

2.3. Polarity

2.4. Solvent power

2.5. Thermodynamic cycle

2.6. Diffusivity /Viscosity Considerations

2.7. Transport Properties

2.8. Biological Properties

2.9. Solvating Strength

2.10. General Process Concepts

2.11. Modified Supercritical Fluids

3. FUNCTIONAL GROUP SOLUBILITY IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS

3.1. General Considerations

3.2. Determination of Solubility

3.3. Threshold Density

3.4. Solubility in Modified Fluids

4. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

4.1. The Need for Sample Preparation

4.2. Conventional Sample Preparation

4.3. Preliminary Considerations

4.4. Fluids

4.5. Pumps

4.6. Extraction Vessel

4.7. Restrictor

4.8. Summary

5. COLLECTION EFFICIENCY IN OFF-LINE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

5.1. The Importance of Trapping

5.2. The Restrictor Cannot Be Ignored

5.3. Inert Solid Trap

5.4. Active Solid Sorbent

5.5. Liquid Solvent Trapping

5.6. Trapping when Using Modified Fluids

5.7. Summary

6. EXTRACTION STRATEGIES

6.1. Extraction Protocol

6.2. Factors Determining Extractability

6.3. Extraction Scenarios

6.4. Extraction Profiles

6.5. Mechanics of Analytical SFE

6.6. Kinetic Models of Supercritical Fluid Extraction

6. 6. 1. General equations

6. 6. 2. Solute mass balance for supercritical phase

6. 6. 3. Solute mass balance for solid phase

6. 6. 4. Solute transfer across the interface (sink-source term)

6. 6. 5. Mass transfer approach

6. 6. 5. 1. External mass transfer

6. 6. 5. 2. Internal mass transfer

6. 6. 5. 3. Overall mass transfer resistance

6. 6. 6. Desorption kinetics

6. 6. 7. Instantaneous solute transfer

6. 6. 8. Local equilibrium concept

6. 6. 9. Initial and boundary conditions

6. 6. 10. Modeling results and discussion

6. 6. 10. 1. Static stage

6. 6. 11. Fluid displacement models for full SFE static recovery

6. 6. 12. Modeling results and discussion

6. 6. 13. Static stage

6. 6. 14. Modeling analytical SFE tests (CSTR)

6. 6. 15. New equilibrium model for analytical SFE tests

6. 6. 16. Establishing new SFE models by analogy

6.7. Extraction Aids

6. 8. Matrix Problems

6. 9. Modifier Introduction

6. 10. Developing a Method

6. 11. Quantification in SFE

7. THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION APPLICATIONS

7. 1. Environmental Applications

7. 2. Pharmaceutical Applications

7. 2. 1. Spiked Drug in Animal Feed

7. 2. 2. Formulated Drugs

7. 2. 3. Tissue—Serum-Feces-Urine-Milk

7. 3. Polymeric Applications

7. 4. Natural Product Applications

7. 5. Food Applications

PART B

B. APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS

1. SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS – FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

1. 1. Introduction

1. 2. Properties and fundamentals of supercritical fluids

1. 2. 1. Solvent strength.

1. 2. 2. Phase behavior.

1. 2. 3. Extraction with supercritical fluids

1. 2. 4. Polymers and supercritical fluids

1. 2. 5. Biocatalysis and supercritical fluids

1. 2. 6. Dispersions in supercritical fluids

1. 3. Applications and commercial processes of supercritical fluids

1. 3. 1. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

1. 3. 2. Fractionation

1. 3. 3. Reactions

1. 3. 4. Applications in the material and polymer industry

1. 3. 5. Food applications

1. 3. 6. Pharmaceutical applications

1. 3. 7. Environmental applications

2. THE USE OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PROCESSING

3. PERMEATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE ACROSS POLYMERIC HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANES

4. REGENERATION OF GAC-F400 BY SCCO2: EFFECT OF SYSTEM CONDITIONS ON DESORPTION STUDIES

4. 1. The operation rig

4. 2. Adsorption studies

4. 3. Solubility studies

4. 4. Desorption Studies

4. 4. 1. The rate of desorption

4. 5. The effect of temperature and pressure

4. 6. The effect of SCF flow rate

4. 7. The effect of initial carbon loading

5. SEPARATION OF FLURBIPROFEN AND IBUPROFEN ENANTIOMERS ON A CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASE USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS

5. 1. Effect of temperature and pressure using isopropanol as a modifier

5. 2. Effect of various solvents as modifier

5. 3.Effect of Modifier Content v/v % on Peak Resolution and Separation Factor in SFC

6. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AS SUCCESSFUL SEPARATION TOOL IN CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

7. CONTINUOUS SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION OF SOLIDS IN AN EXTRUDER

8. PURIFICATION OF ISOCYANATES BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID FRACTIONATION USING CARBON DIOXIDE AND CARBON DIOXIDE-PROPANE MIXTURES

8. 1. Separational analysis

8. 2. Counter-current experiments

9. CFD SIMULATION OF PARTICLE-TO-FLUID HEAT TRANSFER UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CONDITIONS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

9. 1. Geometrical model

9. 2. Mesh design and cfd modeling

9. 3. Model analysis

9. 3. 1. Velocity profiles

9. 3. 2. Temperature profiles

9. 3. 3. Transport properties estimation

10. FLOW VELOCITIES OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE UNDER CONDITIONS OF NATURAL CONVECTION

10. 1. External heater

10. 2. Internal heater

11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEMES FOR OXIDATION OF ORGANICS IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER

11. 1. Chemical reactions proceeded in the system

11. 2. Thermodynamic calculations

12. SOLID BED PROPERTIES IN SUPERCRITICAL PROCESSING

12. 1. Mechanical compaction

12. 2. Permeability

12. 3. Radial to axial pressure ratio, pressure propagation

12. 4. Modelling

13. PURIFICATION OF THE SYNTHESIS PRODUCT OF SALICYLIC ACID BY MEANS OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

14. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND FRACTIONATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND RELATED PRODUCTS

15. PRODUCTION OF REFERENCE SOILS FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL FIELD STUDIES USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2-EXTRACTION

15. 1. Extraction efficiency

16. HEAT TRANSFER AND HYDRODYNAMICS IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

17. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF NATURAL PRODUCTS

17. 1. SFE of Essential Oils

17. 2. SFE of Black Pepper Essential Oil

17. 2. 1. Empirical Model

17. 2. 2. Extended Lack’s Plug Flow Model

17. 2. 3. Mass balance and boundary conditions

17. 2. 4. Model with analytical solution

17. 2. 5. Analytical assumptions

17. 2. 6. Nomenclature

18. SOLUTE-SOLUTE AND SOLUTE-MATRIX INTERACTIONS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION FROM PLANTS

18. 1. Equilibrium Relationship

18. 2. Extraction Of Oleoresin

18. 3. Extraction of minor low-polar compounds

18. 4. Extraction of minor polar compounds

19. THE MODELLING OF FRACTIONATION OF FRIED OIL WITH SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE: A FIRST STEP

20. SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AS ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENTS FOR THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

21. IS IT POSSIBLE TO ENHANCE THE DISSOLUTION RATE OF POORLY-SOLUBLE ACTIVE INGREDIENTS BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID PROCESSES ?

21. 1. Supercritical Fluid particle design

21. 2. Dissolution of SCF-micronized neat particles

21. 2. 1. Experimental issues

21. 3. Dissolution of composite particles

21. 3. 1. SCF formulation

22. PRODUCTION OF MICRO-PARTICLES WITH SC-CO2: COMPARISON OF PCA AND GAS PRECIPITATION TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS

23. A SUPERCRITICAL PROCESS TO PRODUCE COCOA BUTTER AND CHOCOLATE PARTICLES FOR THE SEEDING OF CHOCOLATE

23. 1. Experimental apparatus

23. 2. Chocolate particle generation

24. CONTROLLED PRECIPITATION OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS EMPLOYING SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS: SCALE-UP

CONSIDERATIONS

25. APPLICATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYLACTIDE MEMBRANES

26. SEMI-BATCH FRACTIONATION OF FATTY ACIDS ETHYL ESTERS BY MEANS OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

26. 1. Modellization

27. SUPERCRITICAL CO2-EXTRACTION OF FATTY COMPOUNDS OUT OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

28. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL IMPORTANCE FROM BOTANICALS OF EUPHORBIACEAE FAMILY

28. 1. GC-MS analysis

29. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM MAJORANA L. HERB AND EXTRACTS OBTAINED BY SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION

30. LYCOPENE EXTRACTION FROM PROCESSED TOMATOES USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2

31. SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION OF GLYCYRRHIZIN FROM LICORICE ROOT

32. SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID EXTRACTION OF SEED OIL FOR HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L.

32. 1. Effect of Particle sizes

33. EFFECT OF SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD ON SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION FOR ESSENTIAL OILS FROM BITTER ORANGE (VAR.AMARA)

34. ALKYLRESORCINOLS EXTRACTED FROM RYE SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

35. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF LIPID COMPOUNDS FROM HEATHER (CALLUNA VULGARIS).

36. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF LIPOPHILIC EXTRACTIVES FROM WHEAT STRAW TRITICUM AESTIVUM

37. KINETICS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM MICROALGA Nannochloropsis sp

38. THE TECHNOLOGY OF EXTRACTING ESSENCE OIL FROM THE PURPLE PERILLA SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS

39. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L.)

39.1. Extraction of carotenoids

39. 2. Extraction of polyphenols

40. SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION OF TURKISH MOUNTAIN TEA (Sideritis arguta Boiss.et Heldr.)

40. 1. Supercritical CO2 extraction aparatus

41. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF MICROALGAE SPIRULINA PLATENSIS. CHEMO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION

42. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CAROTENOIDS FROM TOMATO INDUSTRIAL WASTES

43. EXTRACTION OF OIL ENRICHED IN a-TOCOPHEROL FROM GRAPE SEEDS (VITIS VINIFERA) USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

44. IDENTIFICATION AND REMOVAL OF OFFFLAVORS FROM TUNA FISH OIL WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2

45. UPGRADING AND VALORISATION OF FOOD WASTES BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION

PART C

  • SUPERCRITICAL FLUID RESEARCHES
  • SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION OF LAVENDER ( Lavandula Stoechas spp.)
  • SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION OF MARSHMALLOW (Althaea Offęcinalis).

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