• The Fantastic Spices World
  • The Fantastic Spices World
  • The Fantastic Spices World
  • The Fantastic Spices World

FENNEL ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill. )
Names in Other Languages:

English Sweet cumin
French Fenouil, Aneth doux
German Fenchel
Spanish Hinojo
Italian Finocchio
Turkish Rezene, İrziyan, Arapsaçı, Bahçe rezenesi, Mayana, Raziyane
Japanese 茴香 Uikyō

FAMILY: Apiaceae

ORIGIN:   : Mediterranean

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

Fennel seeds split into two, one sometimes remaining on the stalk. They are 4 -8 mm long, thin and curved, with colour varying from brown to light green (the green being superior).

USEFUL PARTS:

Fruits, leaves and stalks. Other than most of their relatives, they retain a green colour after drying. As a rule of thumb, a bright green colour indicates a good quality. The leaves and stalks of fennel can be eaten as a vegetable.


Dried fennel fruits (often
called seeds)
SENSORY PROPERTIES:

Sweet and aromatic. The dried fruits of wild fennel (traded only in small scale) have a similar scent.







MAIN CONSTITUENTS:

The content of essential varies strongly (0.6 to 6%); fruits in the center of an umbel are generally greater, greener and stronger in fragrance. Time of harvest and climate are also important.

The essential oil of the most important fennel variety (var. dulce) contains anethole (50 to 80%), limonene (5%), fenchone (5%), estragole (methyl-chavicol), safrole, α-pinene (0.5%), camphene, β-pinene, β-myrcene and p-cymene. In contrast, the uncultivated form (var. vulgare) contains often more essential oil, but since it is characterized by the bitter fenchone (12 to 22%), it is of little value.

The composition of fennel seed is given below:

Moisture: 6.30 %
Protein: 9.5 %
Fat: 10 %
Crude fiber: 18.5 %
Carbohydrates: 42.3 %
Total ash: 13.4 %
Calcium: 1.3 %
Phosphorus: 0.48 %
Iron: 0.01 %
Sodium: 0.09 %
Potassium: 1.7 %
Vitamin B1: 9.41 mg/100 g.
Vitamin B2: 0.36 mg/100 g.
Niacin: 6.0 mg/100 g.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): 12.0 mg/100 g.
Vitamin A: 1040 I.U./100 g
Calorific value: 370 calories/100 g.
   

Source: http://www.indianetzone.com/1/fennel.htm

MAIN USES IN FOOD PROCESSING:

Fennel is a versatile vegetable that plays an important role in the food culture of many European nations, especially in France and Italy. Its esteemed reputation dates back to the earliest times and is reflected in its mythological traditions. Greek myths state that fennel was not only closely associated with Dionysus, the Greek god of food and wine, but that a fennel stalk carried the coal that passed down knowledge from the gods to men.

Fennel is composed of a white or pale green bulb from which closely superimposed stalks are arranged. The stalks are topped with feathery green leaves near which flowers grow and produce fennel seeds. The bulb, stalk, leaves and seeds are all edible.

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES:

--> Unique Phytonutrients with Antioxidant and Health-Promoting Effects

Fennel contains its own unique combination of phytonutrients-including the flavonoids rutin, quercitin, and various kaempferol glycosides-that give it strong antioxidant activity. The phytonutrients in fennel extracts compare favorably in research studies to BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), a potentially toxic antioxidant commonly added to processed foods.

The anethole in fennel has repeatedly been shown to reduce inflammation and to help prevent the occurrence of cancer. Researchers have also proposed a biological mechanism that may explain these anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. This mechanism involves the shutting down of a intercellular signaling system called tumor necrosis factor (or TNF)-mediated signaling. By shutting down this signaling process, the anethole in fennel prevents activation of a potentially strong gene-altering and inflammation-triggering molecule called NF-kappaB. The volatile oil has also been shown to be able to protect the liver of experimental animals from toxic chemical injury.

--> Antioxidant Protection and Immune Support from Vitamin C

Fennel bulb is a good source of vitamin C. Vitamin C is the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant, able to neutralize free radicals in all aqueous environments of the body. If left unchecked, these free radicals cause cellular damage that results in the pain and joint deterioration that occurs in conditions like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

The vitamin C found in fennel bulb is directly antimicrobial and is also needed for the proper function of the immune system.

--> Fiber, Folate and Potassium for Cardiovascular and Colon Health

As a very good source of fiber, fennel bulb may help to reduce elevated cholesterol levels. And since fiber also removes potentially carcinogenic toxins from the colon, fennel bulb may also be useful in preventing colon cancer. In addition to its fiber, fennel is a very good source of folate, a B vitamin that is necessary for the conversion of a dangerous molecule called homocysteine into other, benign molecules. At high levels, homocysteine, which can directly damage blood vessel walls, is considered a significant risk factor for heart attack or stroke. Fennel is also a very good source of potassium, a mineral that helps lower high blood pressure, another risk factor for stroke and heart attack.

REFERENCES and SOURCES:

http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Foen_vul.html

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?pfriendly=1&tname=foodspice&dbid=23

http://www.theepicentre.com/Spices/fennel.html

http://www.theherbspiral.com/images/dreamstime_fennel.jpg

http://web.archive.org/web/20070223134122/unitproj.library.ucla.edu/biomed/spice/index.cfm?displayID=11